May 9, 2013: NOAA confirms that CO2 hits 400 ppm

The earth’s atmosphere hasn’t held this much CO2 since the Pliocene Epoch, an ancient era that ended more than 2 million years before the first Homo sapiens appeared.  Global CO2 levels hovered between 170 ppm and 300 ppm for ages until the Industrial Revolution, when a steady ascent began.  The U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimates 450 ppm is when the worst effects of climate change will begin.


Graphic courtesy NOAA


Consume less animal protein, or do so more responsibly?

Ecologist Allan Savory promotes holistic grassland management via a program of planned livestock grazing that “mimics nature,” claiming that it is the only way to stop desertification.  Savory believes that desertification is perhaps a greater contributor to climate change than fossil fuels.


Photo courtesy

3Ps: People, Plastic, Planet

As I sit here writing this post, I am surrounded by plastic.  The keys I tap are plastic.  The Auburn Tigers cup holding my drink, the clear sleeves clinging to my fridge, framing pictures of my puppies, the flimsy shopping bags stuffed into the cotton bag hanging from the doorknob, the dog bowls, the compost bin, the spoons and spatulas … all plastic, all within a five foot range.

Junk like this ends up in the Great Pacific Garbage Patch, a humungous vortex of trash floating between Hawaii and California.   This tangle of detritus is twice the size of Texas, and growing.


Map courtesy

What is plastic, anyway? It’s a durable, petroleum-based synthetic material used in place of glass, wood, and metals.  I started thinking about plastic and how it permeates every aspect of my life after hearing some feedback about my blog:  “It’s nice, but what’s the point?  What am I supposed to do?”  This is a question that I keep coming back to.  What are we supposed to do?  It depends, I suppose, on how we think about the future.  Now there’s a tangle.

The planet we inhabit has seen many changes.  Relatively speaking, humans are among the newcomers.  Before we mammals ruled the planet, it was the reptilians.  Something major some 65 million years ago, perhaps a giant meteor collision, knocked them aside, clearing the way for us to dominate.  Well, something major is occurring now.  Human civilization is dramatically affecting the earth’s biosphere.   The sixth major extinction is underway.  The ice core data shows that CO2 levels for over 600,000 years have hovered between 180 and 320 or so parts per million and that as CO2 levels rise, so too does temperature.  The CO2 hovering above us is now 395 ppm, and growing.

Everyone’s talking about sustainability:  sustainable agriculture, sustainable business practices … maybe it’s the concept not of sustainability but of durability that has me intrigued.  Plastic is durable stuff – it doesn’t biodegrade, it just breaks down into smaller and smaller bits.  These microplastics cannot be seen by the naked eye.  The Great Pacific Garbage Patch is estimated to be 7 million square miles.  Scientists have collected close to 2 million bits per square mile.  Some of the debris floats; much of the denser stuff sinks.  Microplastics accumulate, block the sun, and threaten the livelihood of the algae and plankton communities below.  These simple organisms are the foundation of the marine food web.


Photo courtesy

About that question that I keep coming back to … what are we supposed to do?  Democracy is a system where eligible citizens participate equally in political self-determination.  Unfortunately, our system of government is no longer democratic, because the citizens engaged are inherently unequal, with the notable example being the imbalance between individuals and corporations.  In addition, the talking heads at the top have locked horns in argument, a wasteful activity that hinders progress.  We have no time to waste.  Collaborative problem solving must replace endless debate.   This simple concept is the foundation of our future.

© Taryn Fisher 2013

A Sustainable Future

I attended a great talk today.  Al Gore presented highlights from his latest book, The Future:  Six Drivers of Global Change.  Here are Gore’s six drivers:

  1. Economy:  technologically advanced, globalized, with distant and deep supply chains
  2. Communication:  instantaneously enabled by the internet
  3. Political Power:  shifting from the west to the east
  4. Growth:  population and economic
  5. Genetic manipulation:  revolutionary developments in the life and material sciences
  6. Ecosystems:  relationship between humanity and the natural environment

For sure, it’s challenging to digest Gore’s list as a set of stand-alone topics.  Since these topics are all interrelated, they’ve got to be considered holistically.  For the average person, myself certainly included, this is … impossible.  I keep coming back to the question, how can we think about sustainability such that it’s both understandable and actionable?  Humanity must come to a consensus on this, and quickly.  We must row together in order to pull our boat forward.


Image courtesy

One thing Gore talked about today is “winning the conversation.”  To explain what he meant, he used the Civil Rights movement as an example.  A major milestone was achieved here in the States when it became socially unacceptable to speak or behave in a racist manner.   Regarding climate change, the conversation is turning from debate about its existence to debate about how to respond.  This, unfortunately, is where the conversation splinters.

Because there are multiple complex and interdependent variables in play (see Gore’s list) and because the situation is dynamic, the global community must collaboratively develop both a broad perspective about the best long-term strategy as well as a close-to-home perspective about tangible and feasible ways to live and work more sustainably.

Hence, systems thinking is required.  Ideally, by seeing a situation as a whole, new insights emerge and new prospects are envisioned in response to problems where solutions are not easily attained.  According to Daniel Aronson, “Systems thinking has proven its value (regarding) … issues where an action affects (or is affected by) the environment surrounding the issue, either the natural environment or the competitive environment (and regarding) problems whose solutions are not obvious (Aronson, 1996-98).”[1]

So, assuming that we concur with Gore on the six drivers of global change, we must create a vision for a sustainable future.  Perhaps we ought to focus our sights on making nakedly transparent the true costs of growth (population and economic) and on comprehensively analyzing the technical and moral implications of genetic manipulation.  In this way, we can determine a path forward based on an understanding that “Everything that we need for our survival and well-being depends, either directly or indirectly, on our natural environment (EPA, n.d.).”[2]

© Taryn Fisher 2013

[1] Retrieved from:  Daniel Aronson is the host of the Thinking Page (, a source of information on improving organizational and individual thinking.